In each case, for the correct selection of therapy, a preliminary diagnosis is required, which may include immunological, allergological, biochemical methods and microbiological examination. If necessary, consultations of narrow specialists are carried out (therapist, endocrinologist, gastroenterologist, psychotherapist, etc.).
Complex personalized treatment is prescribed taking into account the characteristics and degree of skin lesions and always includes the use of antihistamines.
When prescribing therapy, the doctor also takes into account the gender and age of the patient, history, results of previous treatment, individual drug intolerance. The stage and extent of the disease are key factors.
Eczema is a chronic inflammatory skin disorder that causes itching, redness, and rashes in the form of small bubbles of fluid. The rash resembles air bubbles that form when water boils. Hence the name of the disease (from the Greek eczeo - to boil).
Eczema is not spread from person to person.
Damp and itchy skin on the face and hands
A rash on the skin in the form of blisters and bumps, accompanied by redness, can be manifestations of true eczema. Subsequently, the bubbles open with the release of serous fluid, in their place are formed shallow point erosion (ulcers). The released liquid dries up to form a soft crust.
The appearance of repeated rashes in the area of the pathological focus leads to the simultaneous localization of vesicles, ulcers, and crusts on the skin. All rashes are accompanied by severe itching, which causes significant discomfort to the patient and reduces the quality of life. Sometimes itching at night is the cause of insomnia.
The rashes are characterized by symmetry, the absence of clear boundaries at the affected area.
The rash tends to spread to the chest, torso, abdomen, and back.
Scaly layer on the border of the scalp
Seborrheic eczema often develops on the scalp. In the initial stages, it manifests itself in single yellowish nodules, the number of which is rapidly increasing. The nodules turn into spots with the formation of whitish scales on the surface.
As a result of the fusion of lesions on the border of the hair, a “seborrheic crown” is often formed - a scaly ring, along the edges of which areas of hyperemic skin are located. If left untreated, this form of eczema spreads from the scalp to the folds behind the ear and the neck.
Some doctors consider seborrheic eczema to be just a kind of true seborrhea with minor differences during the pathological process.
Rounded rashes on the skin of the hands
Itchy rashes on the hands can indicate many different conditions. Eczema is one of them; in 80% of cases, true eczema is localized on the hands.
The rash at the initial stage has a rounded shape, with the development of the disease, the contours lose their correctness. A similar nature of rashes on the hands is also characteristic of mycotic eczema.
Microbial eczema on the hands is rare and is characterized by the formation of purulent crusts on the surface.
Rash with clear edges on the legs
Due to the increased frequency of skin trauma and chronic venous insufficiency, post-traumatic and microbial eczema appears most often on the legs. In 75% of cases, they are observed in women. Rashes are more often located next to varicose veins, have a rounded shape and clear boundaries.
Often, microbial eczema manifests itself in many separate rounded foci up to 3 cm in size. Due to the similarity with a scattering of coins, this form of eczema is called coin-like.
Symmetrical scaly skin rashes
The symmetry of the lesions is characteristic of true eczema. In most cases, it initially appears on the limbs, but sometimes foci are initially formed on the trunk.
In the early stages, the lesions look typical and consist of vesicles filled with liquid. With a prolonged course, in place of weeping foci, areas of thickened skin appear with an increase in the skin pattern. In chronic eczema, the lesions become covered with flaky skin during healing, eczema becomes dry.
Fine-grained eruptions on the palms and soles
Eczema can affect the skin of the hands and feet. In these cases, due to the peculiarities of the structure of the skin, foci of eczema appear in the form of small whitish tubercles. The tubercles combine to form blisters, which can burst open. After opening, large ulcers remain on the palms and feet, secreting serous fluid.
Callous eruptions on the palms
A rash on the palms in the form of calluses, appearing in places uncharacteristic for calluses, may indicate tylotic eczema. Bubbles are formed, but may not open due to the structure of the skin.
Tylotic eczema usually accompanies true eczema, so when calluses appear, it is recommended to pay attention to the rest of the body.
Multiple vesicles in the armpit with a hair in the center
Rashes, in the center of which the hair is located, are a sign of sycosis - a special lesion of the hair follicles. This type of rash outside the scalp is called sycosiform eczema. Eczema is also indicated by the presence of itching, which is accompanied by a rash. In addition to the axillary region, this type of eczema can be localized on the chin, upper lip and pubic area.