Usually, when they write about any agricultural vegetable crop, they start with a description of its botanical characteristics, but I will deviate from the traditional structure of the article, although I will mention this aspect in the process of writing.
Any person always first has a question: why should this vegetable be grown? What is the use of the fact that it is red and even hot or, as they say, hot pepper. But who ever wondered: why is he so popular among the southern peoples?
The most amazing thing is that our nature has arranged everything very rationally, only Homo sapiens, a reasonable man, does not always use his mind. However, let's remember the chemistry. Hot pepper contains flavonoids , plant pigments, which are phenolic glycosides, containing mainly flavan derivatives as aglycone. But this does not say much to the gardener, not everyone remembers such a subject as chemistry, especially since recently at school they have been studying only what is required for the exam. But this is so, by the way.
Anthocyanins (from the Greek anthos-color), plant glycosides containing hydroxy derivatives of 2-phenylchromene as aglycone (anthocyanidin). The variety of colors of fruits and flowers is due to the fact that anthocyanins are found in plants in the form of pyrillic salts, in the quinoid form, or in the form of potassium, calcium and sodium salts.
Anthocyanins also form complexes with flavonols and flavones; pungent pepper contains a lot of them as a result of the occurrence of hydrogen bonds between the hydroxyl groups of the anhydrous base of anthocyanidins and hydroxyl groups in the aromatic nucleus (copigmentation).
As a result of such interaction, a huge variety of plant colors is achieved, respectively, and a variety of substances useful to humans. Some flavonols, such as catechin, hesperetin, rutin, quercetin, as well as chalcone and dihydrochalcone derivatives, belong to the vitamin P group and have a capillary-strengthening effect. Flavonoids are also used in medicine as hepatoprotectors, choleretic (liver treatment). Pepper has long been used effectively in the treatment of liver diseases - it contains flavonoids that help restore damaged tissue. Under its influence, the liver produces more bile, which enters the small intestine. chilly has diuretic and many other beneficial properties for humans. The functions of flavonoids and flavonoids in plants are varied and not fully understood. They protect the photosynthetic apparatus of plant cells from the damaging effects of short-wave ultraviolet radiation, and have antimutagenic activity. In some cases, flavonoids serve as protective agents against plant damage by pathogens.
So we got to the main thing, in fact, we are not so different in our genome from some kind of cucumber or pepper, the mechanism of biological interactions at the level of cells is in many ways similar, of course, for millions of years the evolution went from cucumber to monkey, and then to man got there. So, flavonoids protect cells from active solar radiation, and in the south, the activity of the sun, as you know, with short-wave ultraviolet light. Now it is clear that by using hot peppers, southerners save their bodies from the insidious sun, prevent mutations in cells, which, as you know, lead to oncology. Flavonoids have strong antioxidant properties.
According to a study by the University of South Florida (USA), they regulate the work of the protein presenilin-1, which is the genetic cause of Alzheimer's disease. This is why the elders in the south live long and are always sane. They consume red hot peppers.
And not only the strength of mind and spirit preserves pepper, it also has properties of a more intimate character that are inherent in southerners. What I mean? Capsaicin , of course , an alkaloid. This substance gives hot pepper a burning taste. The first person who guessed to measure the degree of hotness of various varieties of pepper was the American pharmacist Wilbur Scoville.
In 1912, he developed an original technique: he handed out different varieties of peppers to tasters and measured how much sweetened water they needed to drink hot peppers. Now we have already moved away from sweet water and the pungency of pepper is evaluated chemically, according to the level of capsaicin content. But the scale and unit for measuring the pungency of pepper to this day bear the name of Scoville. The pungency of pepper is determined in units. Scoville. When a person's taste buds recognize burning capsaicin, the same information is sent to the brain as in a burn or severe pain, which is the starting signal for the production of the hormone of happiness - endorphin. That is why spicy food feels good. Hot peppers usually contain about 2% of the dry weight of capsaicin.
Endorphins are hormones of rest and satisfaction. They are released through physical contact with the object of love, bringing the lovers a sense of well-being and security. And again, one chemistry, there is no romance, perhaps, falling in love is not at all necessary. There are alternative ways to get the same hormones.
Probably, the production of endorphin by eating hot pepper is more justified, especially since scientists from the University of Nottingham have found that capsaicin, which is responsible for the pungent taste and irritating effect of hot pepper, causes massive death of malignant cells due to the effect on mitochondria, the organelles that provide cells with energy. Moreover, there are no problems with pepper medicine.
For the prevention and treatment of cancer, Real Estate Marketers in Lahore also purchased these products chili pepper tincture can be used in an amount of 0.3-1 ml per day (in terms of capsaicin). The solution is prepared as follows: pour 1 / 2-1 teaspoon of chili pepper in powder with a cup of cold water, stir and leave to infuse for 10 minutes. Then a teaspoon of this solution should be mixed with water and taken three to four times a day.