There are three types of games that may useful in helping students develop different skills in problem solving/critical thinking as well as knowledge and basic skills. They are:
All games have some advantages:
There are disadvantages/difficulties especially with commercial games and some educationally produced games. They include:
Therefore, games need to be:
Teacher Designed Games - Learning By Stealth
In my experience, teacher designed games are the most effective in the classroom. Some have evolved from well-known games such as Bingo and other games of chance.
The advantages of teacher designed games are:
I have included below a game called "Buzz" that I saw used by a trainee teacher. I don't know where it came from but I have written a simple version of what I saw. I have used it, with many variations and complications, when doing relief teaching. You will see it has many of the advantages mentioned above.
Some points to take note of when playing games in class as part of your teaching pedagogue:
The game below can be used in the first years in school in a very simple form. As the first year progresses, the game can be made more challenging. Step 9 below gives a simple way to increase the difficulty. In higher year levels, more complexity can be added easily without taking the fun out of the game or lessening its capacity to improve counting in our young students.
Buzz is a counting game you can play with classes up to Year Three. The aim of the game is to consolidate the ability to count with a critical thinking/decision making component. The students are learning to count in a non-threatening context while having fun.
Here is how to play the basic game:
Step 1: Decide on the counting numbers you will use. This will depend on the students' age level, e.g. 1 - 10.
Step 2: Decide on your 'Buzz' number, e.g. 8.
Step 3:Arrange your class standing in a circle.
Step 4: Explain that the class will count one after the other around the circle from 1 to 10. Once the number 10 is reached, the next child says '1' and the count begins again. If a child misses a number or says the wrong number, he/she sits down.
Step 5: Then say what the 'Buzz' number is, e.g. 8.
Step 6:Now explain that when this number comes up the child must say 'Buzz'.
Step 7: If the child forgets to say "Buzz", the class or the teacher will remind them and they sit down.
Step 8: Before you start the game again, ask the class what they are counting and what the 'Buzz' number is.
Step 9: The game continues until there is only one child left - "The winner". You may need to add an extra 'Buzz' number at the end to make the game harder so that you can get a winner.
You will find further information on Mathematical games in the classroom, in the book, "The Quiz-the Forgotten Teaching Strategy", available by emailing. Our author, Rick Boyce, has used games during his whole career even though some experienced teachers frowned on their use, suggesting that games were a 'soft option' to real teaching. What these teachers did not realise was that the students were learning through having fun and not realising that they were learning. In professional development workshops that Rick presented, he demonstrated games taught to him by other teachers that had the power to develop students' understanding of difficult concepts.
When educators are studying to become an English language teacher, there are several options to the student of language pedagogy. An organization named TESOL which means Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages, was formed in the mid 1960's in America and is now designated an NGO (Non-Governmental Organization) by the United Nations is dedicated to English language pedagogy. However TESOL also means Teaching English to Speakers of Other Languages. There are even degrees in TESOL offered at the undergraduate and graduate levels. There is also TEFL, Teaching English as a Foreign Language and TESL Teaching English as a Second Language that may even be offered at the certificate or diploma levels. There is also the CELTA (Certificate in English Language Teaching to Adults) and CTEFLA (the Certificate in Teaching English as a Foreign Language to Adults) replaced the RSA (Royal Society of Arts) Certificate. In addition to the American based TESOL that is an NGO, many groups also implement the acronym in their organizations where language teachers support them, such as KoTESOL (Korea TESOL) and CamTESOL (Cambodia TESOL).
As for testing the abilities of the students of English, there are several. The biggest that is put on by ETS (Educational Testing Service) is TOEFL (Test Of English as a Foreign Language) that is the largest English norm-referenced test, and within the TOEFL it has its own acronym within which is the TWE (Test of Written English). And, the TOEFL has several versions, the CBT (Computer Based TOEFL), the iBT (internet Based TOEFL) and the PBT (the Paper Based TOEFL). The other major language test that ETS puts on is the TOEIC (Test Of English for International Communication). There are several other testing options available and they include the IELTS (International English Language Testing System), the YELT (York English Language Test) and MELAB (Michigan English Language Assessment Battery).
- There has been a survey that most large companies and industries such as Citibank and Microsoft are using project management! If you are going to take the exam.