Coronaviruses have been recognized as causing pathological conditions in veterinary

Author : masakarika
Publish Date : 2021-04-08


Coronaviruses have been recognized as causing pathological conditions in veterinary

1 January
Malaysia has ... has reported 2,068 new cases, bringing the total to 115,078. There are 2,230 recoveries, bringing the total to 91,171. Three deaths were reported, bringing the death toll to 474. There are 23,433 active cases, with 126 in intensive care and 54 on ventilator support[1]
Singapore has reported 30 new cases (three locally transmitted and 27 imported), bringing the total to 58,629.[2] Ten have been discharged, bringing the total number of recoveries to 58,459. The death toll remains at 29.[3]
Turkey reported their first cases of the UK variant in 15 people who had arrived from England.[4]
Ukraine has reported 9,432 new daily cases and 147 new daily deaths, bringing the total number to 1,064,479 and 18,680 respectively; a total of 720,009 patients have recovered.[5]
The United States surpasses 20 million COVID-19 cases.[6]
2 January
The Canadian Province of Ontario reported a new record high of 3,363 COVID-19 cases.[7]
Malaysia has reported 2,295 new cases, bringing the total to 117,373. 3,321 new recoveries were reported, bringing the total number of recovered to 94,492. Nine deaths were reported, bringing the death toll to 483. There are 22,398 active cases, with 125 in intensive care and 51 on ventilator support.[8]
Singapore has reported 33 new cases (all imported), bringing the total to 58,662. 17 people have recovered, bringing the total number of recoveries to 58,476. The death toll remains at 29.[9]
South Korea reported the first case of the new South African coronavirus variant.[10]
Ukraine has reported 5,038 new daily cases and 51 new daily deaths, bringing the total number to 1,069,517 and 18,731 respectively; a total of 722,615 patients have recovered.[11]
The United Kingdom reported a new record high of 57,725 confirmed coronavirus cases, the fifth day in a row where daily figures exceeded 50,000.[12]
American radio host Larry King tested positive for COVID-19.[13]
3 January
Australia has reported 11 new cases: eight in New South Wales and three in Victoria.[14]
Malaysia has reported 1,704 new cases, bringing the total number to 119,077. 2,726 have recovered, bringing the total number of recovered to 97,218. There are 11 deaths, bringing the death toll to 494. There are 21,365 active cases, with 124 in intensive care and 51 on ventilator support.[15]
New Zealand has reported 19 new cases in managed isolation, bringing the total number to 2,181 (1,825 confirmed and 356 probable). Two have recovered, bringing the total number of recovered to 2,084. The death toll remains at 25. There are 72 cases, all in managed isolation.[16]
Singapore has reported 35 new cases (all imported), bringing the total to 58,697. 11 have been discharged, bringing the total number of recoveries to 58,487. The death toll remains at 29.[17]
Ukraine has reported 4,576 new daily cases and 123 new daily deaths, bringing the total number to 1,074,093 and 18,854 respectively; a total of 728,865 patients have recovered.[18]
4 January
Austria reported the first case of the South African coronavirus variant along with four cases of the UK variant.[19]
Malaysia has reported 1,741 new cases, bringing the total number to 120,818. There are 1,010 recoveries, bringing the total number of recovered to 98,228. There are seven deaths, bringing the death toll to 501. There are 22,089 active cases, with 122 in intensive care and 53 on ventilator support.[20]
Singapore has reported 24 new cases (all imported), bringing the total to 58,721. Ten people have recovered, bringing the total number of recoveries to 58,497. The death toll remains at 29.[21]
Ukraine has reported 4,158 new daily cases and 73 new daily deaths, bringing the total number to 1,078,251 and 18,927 respectively; a total of 733,558 patients have recovered.[22]
The United Kingdom has reported a total of 58,784 new cases (53,810 in England, 1,905 in Scotland, 1,898 in Wales, and 1,801 in Northern Ireland). 407 deaths were reported, bringing the death toll to 75,431.[23][24]
5 January
The Africa Centres for Disease Control and Prevention has reported that the total number of cases in Africa has reached 2,854,971 while the death toll has reached 67,986 and that 2,361,900 have recovered.[25]
Iran reported the first case of the UK coronavirus variant.[26]
Malaysia has reported 2,207 new cases, bringing the total number to 122,845. There are 1,221 new recoveries, bringing the total number of recovered to 99,449. There are eight deaths, bringing the death toll to 509. There are 22,887 active cases, with 123 in intensive care and 52 on ventilator support.[27]
New Zealand has reported 5 new imported cases, bringing the total number to 2,186 (1,830 confirmed and 356 probable). There are 16 new recoveries, bringing the total number of recovered to 2,100. The death toll remains 25. There are 61 active cases in managed isolation.[28]
Oman reported the first case of UK variant of the coronavirus.[29]
Singapore has reported 28 new cases (two locally transmitted and 26 imported), bringing the total to 58,749.[30] 20 have been discharged, bringing the total number of recoveries to 58,517. The death toll remains at 29.[31]
Ukraine has reported 5,334 new daily cases and 202 new daily deaths, bringing the total number to 1,083,585 and 19,129 respectively; a total of 747,408 patients have recovered.[32]
South Africa has reported 12,601 new cases, bringing the total number to 1,113,349. 434 deaths were reported, bringing the death toll to 30,011.[33]
The United Kingdom reported a new record high of 60,916 daily cases with 830 COVID-19 related deaths.[34]
The United States of America surpasses 21 million COVID-19 cases.[35]
6 January
Japan reported a new variant of SARS-CoV-2, Lineage B.1.1.248, which was detected in four people who had travelled from Brazil.[36]
Malaysia has reported 2,593 cases, bringing the total number to 125,438. 1,129 have recovered, bringing the total number of recovered to 100,578. There were four deaths, bringing the death toll to 513. There are 24,437 active cases, with 141 in intensive care and 67 on ventilator support.[37]
Singapore has reported 31 new cases (two locally transmitted and 29 imported), bringing the total to 58,780.[38] 24 people have recovered, bringing the total number of recoveries to 58,541. The death toll remains at 29.[39]
Ukraine has reported 6,911 new daily cases and 228 new daily deaths, bringing the total number to 1,090,496 and 19,357 respectively; a total of 761,898 patients have recovered.[40]
The United Kingdom reported a new daily high of 62,322 COVID-19 cases with a further 1,041 daily deaths.[41]
7 January
The Canadian province of Ontario reported a new record high of 3,519.[42]
Malaysia has reported 3,027 new cases, bringing the total to 128,465. There are 2,145 new recoveries, bringing the total number of recovered to 102,273. Eight deaths were reported, bringing the death toll to 521. There are 25,221 active cases, with 142 in intensive care and 63 on ventilator support.[43]

https://www.notion.so/HD-Watch-Godzilla-vs-Kong-2021-Online-Full-For-Free-123Movies-bf732895b4b2424daf52577cb40ea284
https://www.notion.so/WATCH-Raya-and-the-Last-Dragon-2021-Full-Movie-Watch-online-free-Dailymotion-067dad76d2b4491aa2ab227d4f10d43b
https://www.notion.so/Watch-Godzilla-vs-Kong-online-free-123Movies-Online-7295199bea31450abd8671566a7f5019
https://www.notion.so/WATCH-Free-Secret-Magic-Control-Agenc-2021-Online-Full-For-Free-123Movies-4d048a4e080d4c84a649010b0e974c56
https://www.notion.so/WATCH-Free-Barb-and-Star-Go-to-Vista-Del-Mar-2021-Online-Full-For-Free-123Movies-14f2697a86394191a08abb9450b1d3c7
https://www.notion.so/WATCH-Free-Cherry-2021-Online-Full-For-Free-123Movies-4da739bd459842549d55e2d4105d6ad2
https://www.notion.so/WATCH-Free-Monster-Hunter-2021-Online-Full-For-Free-123Movies-8391f9108b934c12a535699cafe168c3
https://www.notion.so/WATCH-Free-Voyagers-2021-Online-Full-For-Free-123Movies-fbe3df99598f442f82d8ac16ab196649
https://www.notion.so/WATCH-Free-Virus-Shark-2021-Online-Full-For-Free-123Movies-1f03eb246f204117b8637749a38fc55a
https://www.notion.so/WATCH-Free-The-Unholy-2021-Online-Full-For-Free-123Movies-ca428cca169c479aabe7071070c39465


https://www.notion.so/WATCH-Free-Nobody-2021-Online-Full-For-Free-123Movies-cffb558ed87049a185bdd1d3ae629173


New Zealand has reported 4 new cases, bringing the total number to 2,188 (1,832 confirmed and 356 probable). One person has recovered, bringing the total number of recovered to 2,101. The death toll remains 25. There are 62 active cases in managed isolation.[44]
Singapore has reported 33 new cases (two locally transmitted and 31 imported), bringing the total to 58,813.[45] 21 have been discharged, bringing the total number of recoveries to 58,562. The death toll remains at 29.[46]
Spain surpasses 2 million COVID-19 cases.[47]
Ukraine has reported 8,997 new daily cases and 148 new daily deaths, bringing the total number to 1,099,493 and 19,505 respectively; a total of 773,214 patients have recovered.[48]
The United Kingdom reported a daily figure of 1,041 deaths from COVID-19, a death toll only exceeded by the daily fatalities recorded on 21 April 2020.[49]
8 January
Brazil surpasses 8 million COVID-19 cases.[50] Researchers reported the first reinfection case in Brazil involving the South African coronavirus variant.[51]
The Canadian province of Ontario reported a new record high of 4,249.[52]
Malaysia has reported 2,641 new cases, bringing the total number to 131,108. There are 2,708 recoveries, bringing the total number of recoveries to 105,431. There are 16 new deaths, bringing the death toll to 537. There are 25,140 active cases, with 170 in intensive care and 82 on ventilator support.[53]
The Federated States of Micronesia has reported its first case in managed isolation.[54]
Singapore has reported 23 new cases (two locally transmitted and 21 imported), bringing the total to 58,836.[55] 18 people have recovered, bringing the total number of recoveries to 58,580. The death toll remains at 29.[56]
Ukraine has reported 5,676 new daily cases and 83 new daily deaths, bringing the total number to 1,105,169 and 19,588 respectively; a total of 778,345 patients have recovered.[57]
The United Kingdom reported a daily toll of 1,325, the highest daily figure of COVID-19 deaths since the start of the pandemic.[58]
9 January
Malaysia has reported 2,451 new cases, bringing the total number to 133,559. There are 1,401 recoveries, bringing the total number of recovered to 106,832. There are five deaths, bringing the death toll to 542. There are 26,185 active cases, with 177 in intensive care and 82 on ventilator support.[59]
Singapore has reported 29 new cases (all imported), bringing the total to 58,865.[60] 31 have been discharged, bringing the total number of recoveries to 58,611. The death toll remains at 29.[61]
Ukraine has reported 4,846 new daily cases and 80 new daily deaths, bringing the total number to 1,110,015 and 19,668 respectively; a total of 786,306 patients have recovered.[62]
The United Kingdom surpassed 3 million COVID-19 cases as the death toll exceeded 80,000.[63]
The United States of America surpasses 22 million cases.[64]
Today marks the one year anniversary since the first death of COVID-19 in Wuhan China
10 January
The Canadian province of Ontario reported 3,945, the highest number of cases since the start of the pandemic.[65]
Russia has become the worst affected European country with 3,425,269 confirmed cases.[66]
Malaysia has reported 2,433 new cases, bringing the total to 135,992. There are 1,277 recoveries, bringing the total number of recovered to 108,109. There are nine deaths, bringing the death toll to 551. There are 27,332 active cases, with 171 in intensive care and 76 on ventilator support.[67]
New Zealand has reported 31 cases in managed isolation, bringing the total number to 2,219 (1,863 confirmed and 356 probable). 18 people have recovered, bringing the total number of recovered to 2,119. The death toll remains 25. There are 75 active cases.[68] The country also reported the detection of their first case of the South African variant.[69]
Singapore has reported 42 new cases (all imported), bringing the total to 58,907.[70] 25 people have recovered, bringing the total number of recoveries to 58,636. The death toll remains at 29.[71]
Ukraine has reported 5,011 new daily cases and 99 new daily deaths, bringing the total number to 1,115,026 and 19,767 respectively; a total of 791,598 patients have recovered.[72]
The total number of COVID-19 cases reported globally has reached 90 million, and the death toll stands at 1.93 million.[73]
11 January
Malaysia has reported 2,232 new cases, bringing the total number to 138,224. 1,006 recoveries were reported, bringing the total number of recovered to 109,115. There are four new deaths, bringing the death toll to 555. There are 28,554 active cases, with 187 in intensive care and 87 on ventilator support.[74]
New Zealand has reported 4 new cases, bringing the total number to 2,222 (1,866 confirmed and 356 probable). 1 person has recovered, bringing the total number of recovered to 2,120. The death toll remains 25. There are 77 active cases in managed isolation, with one previously reported case being reassessed as not a case.[75]
Singapore has reported 22 new cases (all imported), bringing the total to 58,929.[76] 32 have been discharged, bringing the total number of recoveries to 58,668. The death toll remains at 29.[77]
Ukraine has reported 4,288 new daily cases and 68 new daily deaths, bringing the total number to 1,119,314 and 19,835 respectively; a total of 796,417 patients have recovered.[78]
Portuguese President Marcelo Rebelo de Sousa tested positive for COVID-19.[79]
12 January
Germany reported 6 cases of the South African mutation of the coronavirus.[80]
Malaysia has reported 3,309 new cases, bringing the total number to 141,533. There are 1,469 recoveries, bringing the total number of recovered to 110,584. There are four deaths, bringing the death toll to 559. There are 30,390 active cases, with 190 in intensive care and 83 on ventilator.[81]
Singapore has reported 17 new cases (all imported), bringing the total to 58,946.[82] 26 people have recovered, bringing the total number of recoveries to 58,694. The death toll remains at 29.[83]
Ukraine has reported 5,116 new daily cases and 184 new daily deaths, bringing the total number to 1,124,430 and 20,019 respectively; a total of 812,368 patients have recovered.[84]
13 January
Malaysia has reported 2,985 new cases, bringing the total number of cases to 144,518. There are 994 recoveries, bringing the total number of recovered to 111,578. Four deaths were reported, bringing the death toll to 563. There are 32,377 active cases, with 197 in intensive care and 79 on ventilator support.[85]
New Zealand has reported 6 new cases, bringing the total number to 2,228 (1,872 confirmed and 356 probable). 21 people have recovered, bringing the total number of recovered to 2,141. The death toll remains 25. There are 62 cases in managed isolation.[86]
Singapore has reported 38 new cases (one residing in a dormitory and 37 imported), bringing the total to 58,984.[87] 28 have been discharged, bringing the total number of recoveries to 58,722. The death toll remains at 29.[88]
Ukraine has reported 6,409 new daily cases and 195 new daily deaths, bringing the total number to 1,130,839 and 20,214 respectively; a total of 826,871 patients have recovered.[89]
The United Kingdom reported the highest-ever daily toll of 1,564 coronavirus deaths.[90]
The United States of America surpasses 23 million COVID-19 cases.[91]
14 January
China reported first death due to the virus since May 2020. A delegation of WHO experts visited Wuhan to investigate the origin of the pandemic.[92]
Malaysia has reported 3,337 new cases, bringing the total number to 147,855. There are 1,710 new recoveries, bringing the total number of recovered to 113,288. There are 15 deaths, bringing the death toll to 578. There are 32,377 active cases, with 195 in intensive care and 86 on ventilator support.[93]
Singapore has reported 45 new cases (one locally transmitted and 44 imported), bringing the total to 59,029.[94] 35 people have recovered, bringing the total number of recoveries to 58,757. The death toll remains at 29.[95]
Ukraine has reported 7,925 new daily cases and 162 new daily deaths, bringing the total number to 1,138,764 and 20,376 respectively; a total of 837,063 patients have recovered.[96]
Formula One driver Charles Leclerc tested positive for COVID-19.[97]
Germany surpasses 2 million COVID-19 cases.[98]
15 January
The Canadian province of British Columbia reported a case of the South African coronavirus variant, the second such case detected in Canada.[99]
Malaysia has reported 3,211 new cases, bringing the total number to 151,066. 1,939 have recovered, bringing the total number of recovered to 115,227. Eight deaths were reported, bringing the death toll to 586. There are 35,253 active cases, with 204 in intensive care and 87 on ventilator support.[100]
New Zealand has reported 18 new cases, bringing the total number to 2,246 (1,890 confirmed and 356 probable). Four people have recovered, bringing the total number of recovered to 2,145. The death toll remains 25. There are 78 cases in managed isolation.[101]
Singapore has reported 30 new cases (one locally transmitted and 29 imported), bringing the total to 59,059.[102] 14 have been discharged, bringing the total number of recoveries to 58,771. The death toll remains at 29.[103]
Ukraine has reported 8,199 new daily cases and 166 new daily deaths, bringing the total number to 1,146,963 and 20,542 respectively; a total of 847,391 patients have recovered.[104]
Global deaths from COVID-19 topped the 2 million mark.[105]
16 January
Malaysia has reported 4,029 new cases, bringing the total to 155,095. There are 2,148 recoveries, bringing the total number of recoveries to 117,375. There are 8 new deaths, bringing the death toll to 594. There are 37,126 active cases, with 205 in intensive care and 79 on ventilator support.[106]
Singapore has reported 24 new cases including four in community and one residing in a dormitory, bringing the total to 59,083.[107] 13 people have recovered, bringing the total number of recoveries to 58,784. The death toll remains at 29.[108]
Ukraine has reported 7,729 new daily cases and 144 new daily deaths, bringing the total number to 1,154,692 and 20,686 respectively; a total of 857,183 patients have recovered.[109]
Norway reported 29 deaths of people aged between 75 and 80 years, after receiving the Pfizer vaccine. Most of these elderly people had serious health conditions. Norway vaccinated around 42,000 people, where many experienced the side effects of the vaccine.[110]
17 January
Malaysia has reported 3,339 new cases, bringing the total number to 158,434. There are 2,676 new recoveries, bringing the total number of recovered to 120,051. There are seven new deaths, bringing the death toll to 601. There are 37,782 active cases, with 240 in intensive care and 93 on ventilator support.[111]
New Zealand has reported 10 new cases, bringing the total to 2,256 (1,900 confirmed and 356 probable). Four have recovered, bringing the total number of recovered to 2,149. The death toll remains 25. There are 82 active cases.[112]
Singapore has reported 30 new cases including two in community and 28 imported, bringing the total to 59,113.[113] 62 have been discharged, bringing the total number of recoveries to 58,846. The death toll remains at 29.[114]
Ukraine has reported 5,990 new daily cases and 116 new daily deaths, bringing the total number to 1,160,682 and 20,802 respectively; a total of 865,960 patients have recovered.[115]
18 January
Malaysia has reported 3,306 new cases, bringing the total to 161,740. There are 2,293 recoveries, bringing the total number of recovered to 122,344. There are four deaths, bringing the death toll to 605. There are 38,791 active cases, with 226 in intensive care and 94 on ventilator support.[116]
New Zealand has reported 6 new cases, bringing the total number to 2,262 (1,906 confirmed and 356 probable). There are three new recoveries, bringing the total number of recovered to 2,152. The death toll remains 25. There are 85 active cases in managed isolation.[117]
Singapore has reported 14 new cases including two in community and 12 imported, bringing the total to 59,127.[118] 22 people have recovered, bringing the total number of recoveries to 58,868. The death toll remains at 29.[119]
Ukraine has reported 3,034 new daily cases and 67 new daily deaths, bringing the total number to 1,163,716 and 20,869 respectively; a total of 871,196 patients have recovered.[120]
The United States of America surpasses 24 million COVID-19 cases.[121]
19 January
Malaysia has reported 3,631 new cases, bringing the total to 165,371. There are 2,944 recoveries, bringing the total number of recoveries to 125,288. There are 14 deaths, bringing the death toll to 619. There are 39,464 active cases, with 238 in intensive care and 96 on ventilator support.[122]
Singapore has reported 30 new cases including four in community and 26 imported, bringing the total to 59,157.[123] 26 have been discharged, bringing the total number of recoveries to 58,894. The death toll remains at 29.[124]
Ukraine has reported 3,939 new daily cases and 177 new daily deaths, bringing the total number to 1,167,655 and 21,046 respectively; a total of 886,248 patients have recovered.[125]
The United Kingdom reported 1,610 new deaths in one day, the highest daily COVID-19 fatalities since the pandemic began.[126]
20 January
Malaysia has reported 4,008 new cases, bringing the total number to 169,379. There are 2,374 recoveries, bringing the total number of recovered to 127,662. There are 11 new deaths, bringing the death toll to 630. There are 41,087 active cases, with 246 in intensive care and 96 on ventilator support.[127]
New Zealand has reported 6 new cases, bringing the total number to 2,267 (1,911 confirmed and 356 probable). There are 14 recoveries, bringing the total number of recovered to 2,166. The death toll remains 25. There are 76 active cases.[128]
Singapore has reported 40 new cases including four in community and 36 imported, bringing the total to 59,197.[129] 32 people have recovered, bringing the total number of recoveries to 58,926. The death toll remains at 29.[130]
Ukraine has reported 4,383 new daily cases and 212 new daily deaths, bringing the total number to 1,172,038 and 21,258 respectively; a total of 900,749 patients have recovered.[131]
The United Kingdom exceeded another daily record with 1,820 new COVID-19 fatalities.[132]
21 January
Malaysia has reported 21 new cases, bringing the total number to 172,549. There are 2,490 recoveries, bringing the total number of recoveries to 130,152. There are 12 deaths, bringing the death toll to 642. There are 41,755 active cases, with 260 in intensive care and 203 on ventilator support.[133]
Singapore has reported 38 new cases including four in community and 34 imported, bringing the total to 59,235.[134] 33 have been discharged, bringing the total number of recoveries to 58,959. The death toll remains at 29.[135]
Ukraine has reported 5,583 new daily cases and 241 new daily deaths, bringing the total number to 1,177,621 and 21,499 respectively; a total of 914,730 patients have recovered.[136]
France surpasses 3 million COVID-19 cases.[137]
22 January
Malaysia has reported 3,631 new cases, bringing the total number of cases to 176,180. 2,554 have recovered, bringing the total number of recovered to 132,706. 18 deaths were reported, bringing the death toll to 660. There are 42,814 active cases, with 251 in intensive care and 102 on ventilator support.[138]
New Zealand has reported 9 new cases, bringing the total number to 2,276 (1,920 confirmed and 356 probable). There are 12 recoveries, bringing the total number of recovered to 2,178. The death toll remains 25. There are 73 cases all in managed isolation.[139]
Singapore has reported 15 new cases including one in community and 14 imported, bringing the total to 59,250.[140] 24 have been discharged, bringing the total number of recoveries to 58,983. The death toll remains at 29.[141]
Ukraine has reported 5,348 new daily cases and 163 new daily deaths, bringing the total number to 1,182,969 and 21,662 respectively; a total of 928,969 patients have recovered.[142]
23 January
Colombia surpasses 2 million COVID-19 cases.[143]
Malaysia has reported 4,275 new cases, bringing the total to 180,455. There are 4,313 recoveries, bringing the total number of recovered to 137,019. There are seven deaths, bringing the death toll to 667. The are 42,769 active cases, with 260 in intensive care and 103 on ventilator support.[144]
Singapore has reported ten new imported cases, bringing the total to 59,260. 32 people have recovered, bringing the total number of recoveries to 59,015. The death toll remains at 29.[145]
Ukraine has reported 4,928 new daily cases and 116 new daily deaths, bringing the total number to 1,187,897 and 21,778 respectively; a total of 942,107 patients have recovered.[146]
24 January
Malaysia has reported 3,346 new cases, bringing the total number to 183,801. There are 4,427 recoveries, bringing the total number of recovered to 141,446. 11 new deaths were reported, bringing the death toll to 678. There are 41,677 active cases, with 265 in intensive care and 102 on ventilator support.[147]
New Zealand has reported 8 cases at the border, bringing the total number of case of to 2,284 (1,928 confirmed and 356 probable). One recovery was reported, bringing the total number of recovered to 2,179. The death toll remains 25. There are 79 active cases in managed isolation.[148] That same day, a new probable community transmission was reported, an individual in Northland who had previously been through an Auckland quarantine facility.[149] Later that night, the suspected community transmission was confirmed as the country's first community transmission in two months.[150]
Singapore has reported 48 new imported cases, bringing the total to 59,308. 26 have been discharged, bringing the total number of recoveries to 59,041. The death toll remains at 29.[151]
Ukraine has reported 3,915 new daily cases and 83 new daily deaths, bringing the total number to 1,191,812 and 21,861 respectively; a total of 947,514 patients have recovered.[152]
The United States of America surpasses 25 million cases.[153]
25 January
Malaysia has reported 3,048 new cases, bringing the total number to 186,849. 3,638 have recovered, bringing the total number of recoveries to 145,084. There are 11 deaths, bringing the death toll to 689. There are 41,076 active cases, with 261 in intensive care and 101 on ventilator support.[154]
New Zealand has reported 6 new cases, bringing the total number to 2,228 (1,932 confirmed and 356 probable). There are 20 recoveries, bringing the total number of recovered to 2,199. The death toll remains 25. There are 64 active cases.[155]
Singapore has reported 44 new imported cases, bringing the total to 59,352.[156] 25 people have recovered, bringing the total number of recoveries to 59,066. The death toll remains at 29.[157]
Ukraine has reported 2,516 new daily cases and 63 new daily deaths, bringing the total number to 1,194,328 and 21,924 respectively; a total of 953,297 patients have recovered.[158]
26 January
Indonesia surpasses a total of 1 million cases.[159]
Malaysia has reported 3,585 cases, bringing the total to 190,434. There are 4,076 recoveries, bringing the total number of recovered to 149,160. There are 11 deaths, bringing the death toll to 700. There are 40,574 active cases, with 280 in intensive care and 111 on ventilator support.[160]
Singapore has reported 14 new imported cases, bringing the total to 59,366.[161] Also, the country confirmed three more cases of the new UK variant. 20 have been discharged, bringing the total number of recoveries to 59,086. The death toll remains at 29.[162]
Ukraine has reported 2,779 new daily cases and 133 new daily deaths, bringing the total number to 1,197,107 and 22,057 respectively; a total of 965,835 patients have recovered.[163]
The total number of cases reported worldwide hit the 100 million mark, according to Johns Hopkins University.[164]
The United Kingdom reached 100,000 COVID-19 deaths.[165]
27 January
Malaysia has reported 3,680 new cases, bringing the total to 194,114. There are 1,858 recoveries, bringing the total number of recovered to 151,018. There are seven new deaths, bringing the death toll to 707. There are 42,389 active cases, with 314 in intensive care and 122 on ventilator support.[166]
New Zealand has reported 5 new cases (one of them historical), bringing the total number to 2,295 (1,939 confirmed and 356 probable). There was one recovery, bringing the total number of recovered to 2,201. The death toll remains 25. There are 68 active cases.[167]
Singapore has reported 25 new imported cases, bringing the total to 59,391. 18 people have recovered, bringing the total number of recoveries to 59,104. The death toll remains at 29.[168]
Ukraine has reported 3,776 new daily cases and 145 new daily deaths, bringing the total number to 1,200,883 and 22,202 respectively; a total of 980,085 patients have recovered.[169]
28 January
Brazil surpasses 9 million COVID-19 cases
Malaysia has reported 4,094 new cases, bringing the total number to 198,208. There are 4,094 recoveries, bringing the total number of recovered to 154,299. There are ten deaths, bringing the death toll to 717. There are 43,192 active cases, with 303 in intensive care n118 on ventilator support.[170]
New Zealand has reported 5 new cases, bringing the total number to 2,299 (1,943 confirmed and 356 probable). Four people have recovered, bringing the total number of recovered to 2,205. The death toll remains 25. There are 69 active cases (67 in managed isolation and two community transmissions).[171]
Singapore has reported 34 new imported cases, bringing the total to 59,425.[172] 44 have been discharged, bringing the total number of recoveries to 59,148. The death toll remains at 29.[173]
Ukraine has reported 5,529 new daily cases and 149 new daily deaths, bringing the total number to 1,206,412 and 22,351 respectively; a total of 992,031 patients have recovered.[174]
29 January
Malaysia has reported 5,725 new cases, bringing the total to 203,933. There are 3,423 recoveries, bringing the total number of recovered to 157,722. There are 16 deaths, bringing the death toll to 733. There are 45,478 active cases, with 301 in intensive care and 115 on ventilator support.[175]
New Zealand has reported 6 new cases in managed isolation, bringing the total number to 2,305 (1,949 confirmed and 356 probable). There are three new recoveries, bringing the total number of recoveries to 2,208. The death toll remains 25. There are 72 active cases (70 in managed isolation and two community transmissions).[176]
Singapore has reported 24 new imported cases, bringing the total to 59,449.[177] 33 people have recovered, bringing the total number of recoveries to 59,181. The death toll remains at 29.[178]
Ukraine has reported 5,181 new daily cases and 128 new daily deaths, bringing the total number to 1,211,593 and 22,479 respectively; a total of 1,003,341 patients have recovered.[179]
30 January
Malaysia has reported 5,728 new cases, bringing the total number to 209,661. There are 3,805 new recoveries, bringing the total number of recoveries to 161,527. There are 13 deaths, bringing the death toll to 746. There are 47,388 active cases, with 319 cases in intensive care and 120 on ventilator support.[180]
New Zealand has reported 1 new case in managed isolation, bringing the total number to 2,303 (1,947 confirmed and 356 probable). There are 2,207 recovered while the death toll remains 25. There are 71 active cases (69 in managed isolation and two community transmissions).[181] One previously reported case has now recovered while three cases reported previously have been reclassified as under investigation.[182]
Singapore has reported 58 new cases including three in community and 55 imported, bringing the total to 59,507.[183] 15 have been discharged, bringing the total number of recoveries to 59,196. The death toll remains at 29.[184]
Taiwan has reported its first death from the local cluster after 8 months, bringing the death toll to 8.
Ukraine has reported 4,685 new daily cases and 149 new daily deaths, bringing the total number to 1,216,278 and 22,628 respectively; a total of 1,014,658 patients have recovered.[185]
The United States Of America surpasses 26 million COVID-19 cases
Today marks the one year mark since the global health emergency of international concern was declared
31 January
Malaysia has reported 5,298 cases, bringing the total to 214,959. There are 4,522 recoveries, bringing the total number of recoveries to 166,049. The death toll is 14, bringing the death toll to 760. There are 48,150 active cases, 313 in intensive and 127 on ventilator support.[186]
New Zealand has reported 1 new case, bringing the total number to 2,304 (1,948 confirmed and 356 probable). One person has recovered, bringing the total number of recovered to 2,208. The death toll remains 25. There are 71 active cases, with 69 on ventilator and two on ventilator support.[187]
Singapore has reported 29 new imported cases, bringing the total to 59,536.[188] 32 people have recovered, bringing the total number of recoveries to 59,228. The death toll remains at 29.[189]
Ukraine has reported 3,177 new daily cases and 79 new daily deaths, bringing the total number to 1,219,455 and 22,707 respectively; a total of 1,018,784 patients have recovered.[190]

The earliest reports of a coronavirus infection in animals occurred in the late 1920s, when an acute respiratory infection of domesticated chickens emerged in North America.[16] Arthur Schalk and M.C. Hawn in 1931 made the first detailed report which described a new respiratory infection of chickens in North Dakota. The infection of new-born chicks was characterized by gasping and listlessness with high mortality rates of 40–90%.[17] Leland David Bushnell and Carl Alfred Brandly isolated the virus that caused the infection in 1933.[18] The virus was then known as infectious bronchitis virus (IBV). Charles D. Hudson and Fred Robert Beaudette cultivated the virus for the first time in 1937.[19] The specimen came to be known as the Beaudette strain. In the late 1940s, two more animal coronaviruses, JHM that causes brain disease (murine encephalitis) and mouse hepatitis virus (MHV) that causes hepatitis in mice were discovered.[20] It was not realized at the time that these three different viruses were related.[21][13]

Human coronaviruses were discovered in the 1960s[22][23] using two different methods in the United Kingdom and the United States.[24] E.C. Kendall, Malcolm Bynoe, and David Tyrrell working at the Common Cold Unit of the British Medical Research Council collected a unique common cold virus designated B814 in 1961.[25][26][27] The virus could not be cultivated using standard techniques which had successfully cultivated rhinoviruses, adenoviruses and other known common cold viruses. In 1965, Tyrrell and Bynoe successfully cultivated the novel virus by serially passing it through organ culture of human embryonic trachea.[28] The new cultivating method was introduced to the lab by Bertil Hoorn.[29] The isolated virus when intranasally inoculated into volunteers caused a cold and was inactivated by ether which indicated it had a lipid envelope.[25][30] Dorothy Hamre[31] and John Procknow at the University of Chicago isolated a novel cold from medical students in 1962. They isolated and grew the virus in kidney tissue culture, designating it 229E. The novel virus caused a cold in volunteers and, like B814, was inactivated by ether.[32]


Transmission electron micrograph of organ cultured coronavirus OC43
Scottish virologist June Almeida at St. Thomas Hospital in London, collaborating with Tyrrell, compared the structures of IBV, B814 and 229E in 1967.[33][34] Using electron microscopy the three viruses were shown to be morphologically related by their general shape and distinctive club-like spikes.[35] A research group at the National Institute of Health the same year was able to isolate another member of this new group of viruses using organ culture and named one of the samples OC43 (OC for organ culture).[36] Like B814, 229E, and IBV, the novel cold virus OC43 had distinctive club-like spikes when observed with the electron microscope.[37][38]

The IBV-like novel cold viruses were soon shown to be also morphologically related to the mouse hepatitis virus.[20] This new group of viruses were named coronaviruses after their distinctive morphological appearance.[8] Human coronavirus 229E and human coronavirus OC43 continued to be studied in subsequent decades.[39][40] The coronavirus strain B814 was lost. It is not known which present human coronavirus it was.[41] Other human coronaviruses have since been identified, including SARS-CoV in 2003, HCoV NL63 in 2003, HCoV HKU1 in 2004, MERS-CoV in 2013, and SARS-CoV-2 in 2019.[42] There have also been a large number of animal coronaviruses identified since the 1960s.[43]

Microbiology
Structure

Structure of a coronavirus
Coronaviruses are large, roughly spherical particles with unique surface projections.[44] Their size is highly variable with average diameters of 80 to 120 nm. Extreme sizes are known from 50 to 200 nm in diameter.[45] The total molecular mass is on average 40,000 kDa. They are enclosed in an envelope embedded with a number of protein molecules.[46] The lipid bilayer envelope, membrane proteins, and nucleocapsid protect the virus when it is outside the host cell.[47]

The viral envelope is made up of a lipid bilayer in which the membrane (M), envelope (E) and spike (S) structural proteins are anchored.[48] The molar ratio of E:S:M in the lipid bilayer is approximately 1:20:300.[49] The E and M protein are the structural proteins that combined with the lipid bilayer to shape the viral envelope and maintain its size.[50] S proteins are needed for interaction with the host cells. But human coronavirus NL63 is peculiar in that its M protein has the binding site for the host cell, and not its S protein.[51] The diameter of the envelope is 85 nm. The envelope of the virus in electron micrographs appears as a distinct pair of electron-dense shells (shells that are relatively opaque to the electron beam used to scan the virus particle).[52][50]

The M protein is the main structural protein of the envelope that provides the overall shape and is a type III membrane protein. It consists of 218 to 263 amino acid residues and forms a layer 7.8 nm thick.[46] It has three domains, a short N-terminal ectodomain, a triple-spanning transmembrane domain, and a C-terminal endodomain. The C-terminal domain forms a matrix-like lattice that adds to the extra-thickness of the envelope. Different species can have either N- or O-linked glycans in their protein amino-terminal domain. The M protein is crucial during the assembly, budding, envelope formation, and pathogenesis stages of the virus lifecycle.[53]

The E proteins are minor structural proteins and highly variable in different species.[45] There are only about 20 copies of the E protein molecule in a coronavirus particle.[49] They are 8.4 to 12 kDa in size and are composed of 76 to 109 amino acids.[45] They are integral proteins (i.e. embedded in the lipid layer) and have two domains namely a transmembrane domain and an extramembrane C-terminal domain. They are almost fully α-helical, with a single α-helical transmembrane domain, and form pentameric (five-molecular) ion channels in the lipid bilayer. They are responsible for virion assembly, intracellular trafficking and morphogenesis (budding).[46]


Diagram of the genome and functional domains of the S protein for SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV
The spikes are the most distinguishing feature of coronaviruses and are responsible for the corona- or halo-like surface. On average a coronavirus particle has 74 surface spikes.[54] Each spike is about 20 nm long and is composed of a trimer of the S protein. The S protein is in turn composed of an S1 and S2 subunit. The homotrimeric S protein is a class I fusion protein which mediates the receptor binding and membrane fusion between the virus and host cell. The S1 subunit forms the head of the spike and has the receptor-binding domain (RBD). The S2 subunit forms the stem which anchors the spike in the viral envelope and on protease activation enables fusion. The two subunits remain noncovalently linked as they are exposed on the viral surface until they attach to the host cell membrane.[46] In a functionally active state, three S1 are attached to two S2 subunits. The subunit complex is split into individual subunits when the virus binds and fuses with the host cell under the action of proteases such as cathepsin family and transmembrane protease serine 2 (TMPRSS2) of the host cell.[55]


After binding of the ACE2 receptor, SARS-CoV spike is activated and cleaved at the S1/S2 level
S1 proteins are the most critical components in terms of infection. They are also the most variable components as they are responsible for host cell specificity. They possess two major domains named N-terminal domain (S1-NTD) and C-terminal domain (S1-CTD), both of which serve as the receptor-binding domains. The NTDs recognize and bind sugars on the surface of the host cell. An exception is the MHV NTD that binds to a protein receptor carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 1 (CEACAM1). S1-CTDs are responsible for recognizing different protein receptors such as angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), aminopeptidase N (APN), and dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4).[46]

A subset of coronaviruses (specifically the members of betacoronavirus subgroup A) also has a shorter spike-like surface protein called hemagglutinin esterase (HE).[43] The HE proteins occur as homodimers composed of about 400 amino acid residues and are 40 to 50 kDa in size. They appear as tiny surface projections of 5 to 7 nm long embedded in between the spikes. They help in the attachment to and detachment from the host cell.[56]

Inside the envelope, there is the nucleocapsid, which is formed from multiple copies of the nucleocapsid (N) protein, which are bound to the positive-sense single-stranded RNA genome in a continuous beads-on-a-string type conformation.[50][57] N protein is a phosphoprotein of 43 to 50 kDa in size, and is divided into three conserved domains. The majority of the protein is made up of domains 1 and 2, which are typically rich in arginines and lysines. Domain 3 has a short carboxy terminal end and has a net negative charge due to excess of acidic over basic amino acid residues.[45]

Genome
See also: Severe acute respiratory syndrome–related coronavirus § Genome

SARS-CoV genome and proteins
Coronaviruses contain a positive-sense, single-stranded RNA genome. The genome size for coronaviruses ranges from 26.4 to 31.7 kilobases.[7] The genome size is one of the largest among RNA viruses. The genome has a 5′ methylated cap and a 3′ polyadenylated tail.[50]

The genome organization for a coronavirus is 5′-leader-UTR-replicase (ORF1ab)-spike (S)-envelope (E)-membrane (M)-nucleocapsid (N)-3′UTR-poly (A) tail. The open reading frames 1a and 1b, which occupy the first two-thirds of the genome, encode the replicase polyprotein (pp1ab). The replicase polyprotein self cleaves to form 16 nonstructural proteins (nsp1–nsp16).[50]

The later reading frames encode the four major structural proteins: spike, envelope, membrane, and nucleocapsid.[58] Interspersed between these reading frames are the reading frames for the accessory proteins. The number of accessory proteins and their function is unique depending on the specific coronavirus.[50]

Replication cycle
Cell entry

The life cycle of a coronavirus
Infection begins when the viral spike protein attaches to its complementary host cell receptor. After attachment, a protease of the host cell cleaves and activates the receptor-attached spike protein. Depending on the host cell protease available, cleavage and activation allows the virus to enter the host cell by endocytosis or direct fusion of the viral envelope with the host membrane.[59]

Genome translation
On entry into the host cell, the virus particle is uncoated, and its genome enters the cell cytoplasm. The coronavirus RNA genome has a 5′ methylated cap and a 3′ polyadenylated tail, which allows it to act like a messenger RNA and be directly translated by the host cell's ribosomes. The host ribosomes translate the initial overlapping open reading frames ORF1a and ORF1b of the virus genome into two large overlapping polyproteins, pp1a and pp1ab.[50]

The larger polyprotein pp1ab is a result of a -1 ribosomal frameshift caused by a slippery sequence (UUUAAAC) and a downstream RNA pseudoknot at the end of open reading frame ORF1a.[60] The ribosomal frameshift allows for the continuous translation of ORF1a followed by ORF1b.[50]

The polyproteins have their own proteases, PLpro (nsp3) and 3CLpro (nsp5), which cleave the polyproteins at different specific sites. The cleavage of polyprotein pp1ab yields 16 nonstructural proteins (nsp1 to nsp16). Product proteins include various replication proteins such as RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (nsp12), RNA helicase (nsp13), and exoribonuclease (nsp14).[50]

Replicase-transcriptase

Replicase-transcriptase complex
A number of the nonstructural proteins coalesce to form a multi-protein replicase-transcriptase complex. The main replicase-transcriptase protein is the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp). It is directly involved in the replication and transcription of RNA from an RNA strand. The other nonstructural proteins in the complex assist in the replication and transcription process. The exoribonuclease nonstructural protein, for instance, provides extra fidelity to replication by providing a proofreading function which the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase lacks.[61]

Replication – One of the main functions of the complex is to replicate the viral genome. RdRp directly mediates the synthesis of negative-sense genomic RNA from the positive-sense genomic RNA. This is followed by the replication of positive-sense genomic RNA from the negative-sense genomic RNA.[50]


Transcription of nested mRNAs

Nested set of subgenomic mRNAs
Transcription – The other important function of the complex is to transcribe the viral genome. RdRp directly mediates the synthesis of negative-sense subgenomic RNA molecules from the positive-sense genomic RNA. This process is followed by the transcription of these negative-sense subgenomic RNA molecules to their corresponding positive-sense mRNAs.[50] The subgenomic mRNAs form a "nested set" which have a common 5'-head and partially duplicate 3'-end.[62]

Recombination – The replicase-transcriptase complex is also capable of genetic recombination when at least two viral genomes are present in the same infected cell.[62] RNA recombination appears to be a major driving force in determining genetic variability within a coronavirus species, the capability of a coronavirus species to jump from one host to another and, infrequently, in determining the emergence of novel coronaviruses.[63] The exact mechanism of recombination in coronaviruses is unclear, but likely involves template switching during genome replication.[63]

Assembly and release
The replicated positive-sense genomic RNA becomes the genome of the progeny viruses. The mRNAs are gene transcripts of the last third of the virus genome after the initial overlapping reading frame. These mRNAs are translated by the host's ribosomes into the structural proteins and a number of accessory proteins.[50] RNA translation occurs inside the endoplasmic reticulum. The viral structural proteins S, E, and M move along the secretory pathway into the Golgi intermediate compartment. There, the M proteins direct most protein-protein interactions required for assembly of viruses following its binding to the nucleocapsid. Progeny viruses are then released from the host cell by exocytosis through secretory vesicles. Once released the viruses can infect other host cells.[64]

Transmission
Infected carriers are able to shed viruses into the environment. The interaction of the coronavirus spike protein with its complementary cell receptor is central in determining the tissue tropism, infectivity, and species range of the released virus.[65][66] Coronaviruses mainly target epithelial cells.[43] They are transmitted from one host to another host, depending on the coronavirus species, by either an aerosol, fomite, or fecal-oral route.[67]

Human coronaviruses infect the epithelial cells of the respiratory tract, while animal coronaviruses generally infect the epithelial cells of the digestive tract.[43] SARS coronavirus, for example, infects the human epithelial cells of the lungs via an aerosol route[68] by binding to the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor.[69] Transmissible gastroenteritis coronavirus (TGEV) infects the pig epithelial cells of the digestive tract via a fecal-oral route[67] by binding to the alanine aminopeptidase (APN) receptor.[50]

Classification
For a more detailed list of members, see Coronaviridae.

Phylogenetic tree of coronaviruses
Coronaviruses form the subfamily Orthocoronavirinae,[3][4][5] which is one of two sub-families in the family Coronaviridae, order Nidovirales, and realm Riboviria.[43][70] They are divided into the four genera: Alphacoronavirus, Betacoronavirus, Gammacoronavirus and Deltacoronavirus. Alphacoronaviruses and betacoronaviruses infect mammals, while gammacoronaviruses and deltacoronaviruses primarily infect birds.[71][72]

Genus: Alphacoronavirus;[67] type species: Alphacoronavirus 1
Species: Alphacoronavirus 1 (TGEV, Feline coronavirus, Canine coronavirus), Human coronavirus 229E, Human coronavirus NL63, Miniopterus bat coronavirus 1, Miniopterus bat coronavirus HKU8, Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus, Rhinolophus bat coronavirus HKU2, Scotophilus bat coronavirus 512
Genus Betacoronavirus;[68] type species: Murine coronavirus (MHV)
Species: Betacoronavirus 1 (Bovine Coronavirus, Human coronavirus OC43), Hedgehog coronavirus 1, Human coronavirus HKU1, Middle East respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus, Murine coronavirus, Pipistrellus bat coronavirus HKU5, Rousettus bat coronavirus HKU9, Severe acute respiratory syndrome–related coronavirus (SARS-CoV, SARS-CoV-2), Tylonycteris bat coronavirus HKU4
Genus Gammacoronavirus;[19] type species: Avian coronavirus (IBV)
Species: Avian coronavirus, Beluga whale coronavirus SW1
Genus Deltacoronavirus; type species: Bulbul coronavirus HKU11
Species: Bulbul coronavirus HKU11, Porcine coronavirus HKU15
Origin

Origins of human coronaviruses with possible intermediate hosts
The most recent common ancestor (MRCA) of all coronaviruses is estimated to have existed as recently as 8000 BCE, although some models place the common ancestor as far back as 55 million years or more, implying long term coevolution with bat and avian species.[73] The most recent common ancestor of the alphacoronavirus line has been placed at about 2400 BCE, of the betacoronavirus line at 3300 BCE, of the gammacoronavirus line at 2800 BCE, and of the deltacoronavirus line at about 3000 BCE. Bats and birds, as warm-blooded flying vertebrates, are an ideal natural reservoir for the coronavirus gene pool (with bats the reservoir for alphacoronaviruses and betacoronavirus – and birds the reservoir for gammacoronaviruses and deltacoronaviruses). The large number and global range of bat and avian species that host viruses has enabled extensive evolution and dissemination of coronaviruses.[74]

Many human coronaviruses have their origin in bats.[75] The human coronavirus NL63 shared a common ancestor with a bat coronavirus (ARCoV.2) between 1190 and 1449 CE.[76] The human coronavirus 229E shared a common ancestor with a bat coronavirus (GhanaGrp1 Bt CoV) between 1686 and 1800 CE.[77] More recently, alpaca coronavirus and human coronavirus 229E diverged sometime before 1960.[78] MERS-CoV emerged in humans from bats through the intermediate host of camels.[79] MERS-CoV, although related to several bat coronavirus species, appears to have diverged from these several centuries ago.[80] The most closely related bat coronavirus and SARS-CoV diverged in 1986.[81] The ancestors of SARS-CoV first infected leaf-nose bats of the genus Hipposideridae; subsequently, they spread to horseshoe bats in the species Rhinolophidae, then to Asian palm civets, and finally to humans.[82][83]

Unlike other betacoronaviruses, bovine coronavirus of the species Betacoronavirus 1 and subgenus Embecovirus is thought to have originated in rodents and not in bats.[75][84] In the 1790s, equine coronavirus diverged from the bovine coronavirus after a cross-species jump.[85] Later in the 1890s, human coronavirus OC43 diverged from bovine coronavirus after another cross-species spillover event.[86][85] It is speculated that the flu pandemic of 1890 may have been caused by this spillover event, and not by the influenza virus, because of the related timing, neurological symptoms, and unknown causative agent of the pandemic.[87] Besides causing respiratory infections, human coronavirus OC43 is also suspected of playing a role in neurological diseases.[88] In the 1950s, the human coronavirus OC43 began to diverge into its present genotypes.[89] Phylogentically, mouse hepatitis virus (Murine coronavirus), which infects the mouse's liver and central nervous system,[90] is related to human coronavirus OC43 and bovine coronavirus. Human coronavirus HKU1, like the aforementioned viruses, also has its origins in rodents.[75]

Infection in humans

Transmission and life-cycle of SARS-CoV-2 causing COVID-19
Coronaviruses vary significantly in risk factor. Some can kill more than 30% of those infected, such as MERS-CoV, and some are relatively harmless, such as the common cold.[50] Coronaviruses can cause colds with major symptoms, such as fever, and a sore throat from swollen adenoids.[91] Coronaviruses can cause pneumonia (either direct viral pneumonia or secondary bacterial pneumonia) and bronchitis (either direct viral bronchitis or secondary bacterial bronchitis).[92] The human coronavirus discovered in 2003, SARS-CoV, which causes severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), has a unique pathogenesis because it causes both upper and lower respiratory tract infections.[92]

Six species of human coronaviruses are known, with one species subdivided into two different strains, making seven strains of human coronaviruses altogether.


Seasonal distribution of HCoV-NL63 in Germany shows a preferential detection from November to March
Four human coronaviruses produce symptoms that are generally mild, even though it is contended they might have been more aggressive in the past:[93]

Human coronavirus OC43 (HCoV-OC43), β-CoV
Human coronavirus HKU1 (HCoV-HKU1), β-CoV
Human coronavirus 229E (HCoV-229E), α-CoV
Human coronavirus NL63 (HCoV-NL63), α-CoV
Three human coronaviruses produce symptoms that are potentially severe:

Middle East respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus (MERS-CoV), β-CoV
Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV), β-CoV
Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), β-CoV
These cause the diseases commonly called MERS, SARS, and COVID-19 respectively.

Common cold
Main article: Common cold
Although the common cold is usually caused by rhinoviruses,[94] in about 15% of cases the cause is a coronavirus.[95] The human coronaviruses HCoV-OC43, HCoV-HKU1, HCoV-229E, and HCoV-NL63 continually circulate in the human population in adults and children worldwide and produce the generally mild symptoms of the common cold.[96] The four mild coronaviruses have a seasonal incidence occurring in the winter months in temperate climates.[97][98] There is no preponderance in any season in tropical climates.[99]


Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)
Main article: Severe acute respiratory syndrome
Characteristics of zoonotic coronavirus strains
MERS-CoV, SARS-CoV, SARS-CoV-2,
and related diseases
MERS-CoV    SARS-CoV    SARS-CoV-2
Disease    MERS    SARS    COVID-19
Outbreaks    2012, 2015,
2018    2002–2004    2019–2021
pandemic
Epidemiology
Date of first
identified case    June
2012    November
2002    December
2019[100]
Location of first
identified case    Jeddah,
Saudi Arabia    Shunde,
China    Wuhan,
China
Age average    56    44[101][a]    56[102]
Sex ratio (M:F)    3.3:1    0.8:1[103]    1.6:1[102]
Confirmed cases    2494    8096[104]    132,929,832[105][b]
Deaths    858    774[104]    2,885,401[105][b]
Case fatality rate    37%    9.2%    2.2%[105]
Symptoms
Fever    98%    99–100%    87.9%[106]
Dry cough    47%    29–75%    67.7%[106]
Dyspnea    72%    40–42%    18.6%[106]
Diarrhea    26%    20–25%    3.7%[106]
Sore throat    21%    13–25%    13.9%[106]
Ventilatory use    24.5%[107]    14–20%    4.1%[108]
Notes
 Based on data from Hong Kong.
 Data as of 7 April 2021.
vte
In 2003, following the outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) which had begun the prior year in Asia, and secondary cases elsewhere in the world, the World Health Organization (WHO) issued a press release stating that a novel coronavirus identified by a number of laboratories was the causative agent for SARS. The virus was officially named the SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV). More than 8,000 people from 29 different countries and territories were infected, and at least 774 died.[109][69]

Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS)
Main article: Middle East respiratory syndrome
In September 2012, a new type of coronavirus was identified, initially called Novel Coronavirus 2012, and now officially named Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV).[110][111] The World Health Organization issued a global alert soon after.[112] The WHO update on 28 September 2012 said the virus did not seem to pass easily from person to person.[113] However, on 12 May 2013, a case of human-to-human transmission in France was confirmed by the French Ministry of Social Affairs and Health.[114] In addition, cases of human-to-human transmission were reported by the Ministry of Health in Tunisia. Two confirmed cases involved people who seemed to have caught the disease from their late father, who became ill after a visit to Qatar and Saudi Arabia. Despite this, it appears the virus had trouble spreading from human to human, as most individuals who are infected do not transmit the virus.[115] By 30 October 2013, there were 124 cases and 52 deaths in Saudi Arabia.[116]

After the Dutch Erasmus Medical Centre sequenced the virus, the virus was given a new name, Human Coronavirus—Erasmus Medical Centre (HCoV-EMC). The final name for the virus is Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV). The only U.S. cases (both survived) were recorded in May 2014.[117]

In May 2015, an outbreak of MERS-CoV occurred in the Republic of Korea, when a man who had traveled to the Middle East, visited four hospitals in the Seoul area to treat his illness. This caused one of the largest outbreaks of MERS-CoV outside the Middle East.[118] As of December 2019, 2,468 cases of MERS-CoV infection had been confirmed by laboratory tests, 851 of which were fatal, a mortality rate of approximately 34.5%.[119]

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)
Main article: COVID-19
In December 2019, a pneumonia outbreak was reported in Wuhan, China.[120] On 31 December 2019, the outbreak was traced to a novel strain of coronavirus,[121] which was given the interim name 2019-nCoV by the World Health Organization (WHO),[122][123][124] later renamed SARS-CoV-2 by the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses.

https://www.notion.so/HD-Watch-Godzilla-vs-Kong-2021-Online-Full-For-Free-123Movies-bf732895b4b2424daf52577cb40ea284
https://www.notion.so/WATCH-Raya-and-the-Last-Dragon-2021-Full-Movie-Watch-online-free-Dailymotion-067dad76d2b4491aa2ab227d4f10d43b
https://www.notion.so/Watch-Godzilla-vs-Kong-online-free-123Movies-Online-7295199bea31450abd8671566a7f5019
https://www.notion.so/WATCH-Free-Secret-Magic-Control-Agenc-2021-Online-Full-For-Free-123Movies-4d048a4e080d4c84a649010b0e974c56
https://www.notion.so/WATCH-Free-Barb-and-Star-Go-to-Vista-Del-Mar-2021-Online-Full-For-Free-123Movies-14f2697a86394191a08abb9450b1d3c7
https://www.notion.so/WATCH-Free-Cherry-2021-Online-Full-For-Free-123Movies-4da739bd459842549d55e2d4105d6ad2
https://www.notion.so/WATCH-Free-Monster-Hunter-2021-Online-Full-For-Free-123Movies-8391f9108b934c12a535699cafe168c3
https://www.notion.so/WATCH-Free-Voyagers-2021-Online-Full-For-Free-123Movies-fbe3df99598f442f82d8ac16ab196649
https://www.notion.so/WATCH-Free-Virus-Shark-2021-Online-Full-For-Free-123Movies-1f03eb246f204117b8637749a38fc55a
https://www.notion.so/WATCH-Free-The-Unholy-2021-Online-Full-For-Free-123Movies-ca428cca169c479aabe7071070c39465
https://www.notion.so/WATCH-Free-Nobody-2021-Online-Full-For-Free-123Movies-cffb558ed87049a185bdd1d3ae629173

As of 7 April 2021, there have been at least 2,885,401[105] confirmed deaths and more than 132,929,832[105] confirmed cases in the COVID-19 pandemic. The Wuhan strain has been identified as a new strain of Betacoronavirus from group 2B with approximately 70% genetic similarity to the SARS-CoV.[125] The virus has a 96% similarity to a bat coronavirus, so it is widely suspected to originate from bats as well.[126][127



Category :diy-and-how-to

Ukraine unrest will be resolved by force or talks in 48 hours, minister says slavification

Ukraine unrest will be resolved by force or talks in 48 hours, minister says slavification

- Ukrainian acting Interior Minister Arsen Avakov said Wednesday that the separatist protests in Ukrai


Runner completes 19 marathons in 19 days for coronavirus relief

Runner completes 19 marathons in 19 days for coronavirus relief

- Christian Varley finished his final 26.2-mile effort between Peel and the islands capital of Dougla


Ba brace rescues point for Newcastle against Everton

Ba brace rescues point for Newcastle against Everton

- A 90th-minute equalizer by Senegal striker Demba Ba earned Newcastle United a point in an entertaini


Police launch hunt for racist Chelsea fan

Police launch hunt for racist Chelsea fan

- English footballs battle to eradicate racism suffered another blow on Thursday as police launched a