The purpose of this study is to foresee the perception of teachers, parents, and management about religious education at primary schools. Religion and beliefs give awareness of our norms and values. Religious education teaches the ethics of living a peaceful and loving life. It teaches individuals, families, communities that how they should take decisions for living a better life full of peace and harmony. Patrick (2006) said that religious practice benefits individuals, families, and communities, and thus the whole world.
Religious education is very important for students at an early age. It teaches them how to respond to others and tells them the ethics of living a better life. Religion plays a significant role in history and society as well, study about religion is essential to understand both the nation and the world. It also makes great beneficence to other parts of school syllabus such as liberty, civil, crafts, and disciplines for supportable development. John et al (2003) mentioned in their report that the curriculum needs to cater to the child's affective, aesthetic, spiritual, moral, and religious needs to develop the individual's full potential. RE plays a specific role in developing the spiritual and moral values of a child as well as to be aware of the knowledge of God.
Religious education makes students broad-minded but it happens when teachers teach them with these clear concepts and practices about how to practice these thoughts as well as to communicate and deal with others in the adverse community. Religious Education teachers need to have in-depth knowledge of content and pedagogy as well as need to have quality assessment skills to deliver effective instructions as they are the pillars of the teaching process. Dinama et al. (2016)
Geoff Teece (2009) proposed an article on learning about religion and learning from religion or religious education. In this article, the researcher said there is a lack of clarity in terms of learning and meaning from religion. The researcher also argued that the term religion is understood by applying a second-order explanatory framework that refers to the concept of the study of religion such as rituals and myth. Religious education or religious instruction was a serious concern in the education system.
To figure it out Gardner (1980) gave a solution that, not to make students committed towards any of the religions and instead of this teach about the events and lifestyles guided in different religions. The question arises after this given solution that is it appropriate to grow students up with the brought minds in sense of their beliefs in the educational scenario? Or is it better not to go against the grain and follow the traditional style accordingly? The explorers of these questions were Gardner (1993) & McLaughlin & Hare (1994)
Leahy & Laura in 1997 gave their notion that religion is not restricted to be taught in an inflexible environment. Religious concepts can be integrated with other subjects of the curriculum to enhance knowledge (P.329).
Leahy (1998) considered that should the parents be allowed to decide on their child's learning method of religious education by censoring the curriculum of school but she denies it because it will spoil the rights of other religious groups and kill the ways for different groups producing social imbalance.
According to John M.Hull, there is a part of the school in preparing pupils to take an informed and thoughtful part in a pluralistic culture. When the society contains not one but several religions, the necessity for a thoughtful study of religion becomes greater, not less. (1984, p. 48.)
While standards such as admiration, acceptance, and treating people with kindness are important plus constantly have been, the new public currently furthermore prerequisite to understanding the causes of, and possible solutions to, complex and global issues. (Nord and Haynes, 1998, p. 36)
Ethical reflection contributes to that understanding by helping young people see that tolerance of others is not enough; that a global, interconnected world calls for harmony by others whose outcomes and futures are intertwined, and that they want to be prepared to turn, not just personally, but also collectively and politically. (Freiler, 2009, p.15)
Susan D. Holloway in his article "The Role of Religious Beliefs in Early Childhood Education: Christian and Buddhist Preschools in Japan". Off and on in western writing, the Japanese are marked out as a non-religious people apart from it Japanese is considered the faithfulness that conflict with Americans. Japanese show up more prepared to put together and meet the doctrine that often appealing Shinto at the beginning and wedding whereas the Buddhism stand with silence/external rest through despite circumstances that work to darken the noticeable philosophical contribution of a different doctrine, the definite direction of Christians ideology and Buddhism are observed that pressure the school of Japanese.
A quantitative research design was selected to conduct this study. In this study, questionnaires were used as a research tool. In the educational research field, questionnaires are worthily considered as a popular technique mostly used for investigating the opinions, attitudes, perceptions, and preferences.
Questionnaires constitute an important and popular technique that is widely used to study the attitudes, opinions, perceptions, and preferences in the field of educational research. Muijs (2004), Reid (2006)
Oppenheim (1992: 100) described questionnaires as: "The questionnaire is an important instrument of research, a tool for data collection. It is considered a set of questions arranged in a certain order and constructed according to specially selected rules".
[Creswell (2008), Cohen et al (2007), Raid (2006)] all categorized questionnaire information as three types of data that may be collected about respondents through using questionnaires including Factual, Behavioral and attitudinal. Demographic characteristics of respondents are covered in factual questions; behavioral questions are used to investigate the actions, habits, and experiences of participants; and to know about interest, belief, values, opinions, and attitudes investigator uses attitudinal questions. In this study, the research tool consists of two elements from the mentioned categories including factual and attitudinal questions.
Three questionnaires were designed for each category of respondents. Respondents of the study were teachers, parents and management belong to primary schools of Karachi. The total number of statements was 10 for each category of respondents. 30-40 minutes time duration was decided to fill questionnaires after the pilot study. Closed-ended statements were used in questionnaires and respondents were asked to give their point of view by chosen rubrics of the Likert Scale (Strongly Agree, Agree, to some extent, Disagree, and Strongly Disagree).
Oppenheim (1992: 48) mentioned this "everything about the questionnaire should be piloted; nothing should be excluded, not even the typeface or the quality of the paper". 50 respondents were selected for pilot testing of questionnaires (20 teachers, 20 parents, and 10 management staff). Piloting the questionnaires was aimed to ensure the layout of questionnaires, to cater to the language difficulties, to check instructions needed to improve, and to improve validity and reliability of questionnaires. The feedback received through pilot testing provides clarity about statements of questionnaire, layout, instructions, and validity as well.
Teachers, school management of primary schools, and parents of primary grade children of Karachi, Pakistan were selected as a population of this study. The sample was selected district wise; there are 6 districts in Karachi namely Central Karachi, East Karachi, South Karachi, West Karachi, Malir Karachi, and Korangi Karachi. By using the convenient quota sampling technique 4 districts out of 6 were selected including East Karachi, South Karachi, Malir Karachi, and Korangi Karachi. A total of 200 sample size was selected for conducting this study. 50 samples were intended to select from each district approximately. For the desired sample primary schools were selected through searching on the internet and developed communication with concerned authorities of all schools for asking their willingness to fulfill research needs.
The researcher visited schools district wise one by one and distributed 250 questionnaires to participants more than the actual sample size to get maximum return rate. 30 out of 250 participants did not return their questionnaires. 220 participants returned questionnaires on time.20 questionnaires out of 220 were excluded due to incomplete responses. So finally the researcher got the desired sample size of 200 out of 250. The remaining questionnaire responses were 40 (principals, wise principals), 100 teachers, and 60 parents selected collectively. Whereas, 10 (principals, wise principals), 25 teachers, and 15 parents were selected from each district.
5. Analysis of Data:
SPSS version 21 was used for the data analysis procedure. 5-Likert scale responses were converted into numeric scale 1-5 to enter the data in SPSS. Through using SPSS researcher calculated the frequencies and percentages. After calculation, the result is presented through generating graphs showing frequencies and percentages of responses of each category.
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